Fremantle is a modern port city in Western Australia, located 19 km southwest of Perth City, the state capital, at the mouth of the Swan River on Australia's western coast. It was the first settlement of the Swan River colonists in year 1828. It was declared a city in 1929, and has a population of approximately 38,000 people . The city is named after Cap. Charles Fremantle, the English naval officer who had pronounced Western Australia possession and who established a camp at the site. The city contains well-preserved 19th-century buildings and other heritage features. The Western Australian vernacular diminutive for Fremantle is "Freo".
Fremantle is located on a series of limestone hills known by the Nyungar people as Booyeembara; the sandplain to the east is the one named Gardoo. The original vegetation of the area was mainly Xanthorrhoea and eucalyptus trees, being fired annually (in late spring or summer) by the traditional owners. Fremantle is the end of the Fremantle Railway Line which runs from Perth to Fremantle, run by the Western Australia's Public Transport Authority. Fremantle is subject to weather and climate relative to seaside communities - to the point that the regular sea breeze is known as the Fremantle Doctor, as it has a cooling effect to provide relief from the summer heat.
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On 25th of April 1829, the ship HMS Challenger under the guidance of Cap. Fremantle had arrived in the waters off the Fremantle coast to make preparations for the Swan River Colony. On 2nd of May 1829, Cap. Fremantle formally took possession on behalf of King George IV of the entire west coast of New Holland in a ceremony conducted just close the south head of the Swan River. A few days later a camp was set up in a bay just south of the head, and Fremantle has been settled ever since. A month later, on 1 June, Captain James Stirling on the Parmelia arrived to officially set up the Swan River Colony. The settlement of Perth began on 12 August 1829. Captain Fremantle left the colony on 25th of August after providing too many assistance to Stirling in setting up the colony. It was then that Stirling decided to name the port settlement 'Fremantle'.
In year 1897, Irish-born engineer C. Y. O'Connor deepened Fremantle harbour and removed the limestone bar and sand shoals across the entrance to the Swan River, thus rendering Fremantle a serviceable port for commercial shipping. Fremantle still serves as the chief general seaport for Western Australia, though far greater tonnages are exported from the iron-ore ports of the Pilbara. Pietro Porcelli's statue of C. Y. O'Connor, who designed Fremantle Harbour, at Fremantle Port. Fremantle has seen many industrial conflicts, the most famous of which occurred in year 1919 when rioting broke out during "the lumpers' strike", resulting in one death and many injuries. During World War II, Fremantle was the second largest base for Allied submarines operating in the Pacific theatre.
Fremantle offers a wide variety of food cuisine, with a strong emphasis on Asian and Italian cuisine as well as a number of seafood restaurants. Various cafes and coffee shops are situated around Fremantle, particularly on its famous 'Cappuccino Strip' - a section of South Terrace given over to alfresco dining since year 1977. The city has an operational fishing boat harbour which contain markets and restaurants, developed as a tourist precinct. Fishing charter boats also operate from this harbour. Fremantle is a popular place for its nightlife, second only to Northbridge in Perth's CBD. It attracts people from all over the metropolitan region for its bars, pubs, and nightclubs. Fremantle is home to great beaches such as South Beach, Bathers Beach, and Port Beach. The city has a large arts community, with a number of small art galleries and musical venues and a community theatre company, Harbour Theatre Inc., which has been performing in the city since year 1963.